Worm infestation belongs to a group of diseases common to humans and animals. This is due to the fact that in our time, more than three hundred species of various worms penetrate the body. Parasites are mainly localized in the intestines and liver, but some species can penetrate the lungs, heart, brain and other vital organs, which can lead to very serious consequences. It is important to detect the presence of helminths in the body as early as possible and take measures to eliminate them to avoid health problems. After all, this disease can lead to many consequences, including death. However, it is very difficult to determine the presence of helminthic infestations in the body, because the symptoms are similar to other diseases, and it is difficult to say exactly which infection is attacking the body. It is important to understand what to look for when contacting a parasitologist.
Types of helminths that are dangerous to humans
Worms that pose a threat to humans are divided into two groups:
- Space - intestinal worms, roundworms, whipworms, broadworms and other parasites that live in the intestines.
- Tissue - echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis and other types of parasites can spread to all important internal organs and affect them.
The following types of helminthic invasions are often diagnosed in the human body: enterobiosis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, strontyloidosis.
Methods of infection with worms
There are many ways in which parasitic larvae enter the body, the main of which can be distinguished:
- Contact - larvae are transmitted from person to person.
- With an insect bite.
- Through the land
- Through water.
- With dust particles.
- From food that has undergone insufficient heat treatment.
The first manifestations of worms in the body
Once in the human body, worms do not show up immediately. This is the main problem. The first signs of helminthic invasion may appear only after two weeks. These include:
- increased body temperature;
- skin rashes;
- aching pain in the abdomen;
- appearance of headache;
- bowel disorders.
Many problems can be avoided if you see the first symptoms and see a doctor in time.
Symptoms of worms in the human body
Parasites in the body eat a lot of food and vitamins, which significantly affects well-being.
Symptoms of helminthic infestation in adults:
- presence of allergies;
- appearance of acne and boils;
- nervous cough;
- reduction of immunity;
- depression and nervousness;
- pain in the joints;
- disorders of the digestive system.
Symptoms of pneumonia infection
Lung infection with helminths can be asymptomatic for several years. After penetrating the human body, the parasites actively multiply, and when a significant amount is obtained, the following symptoms appear:
- weakness and lack of strength;
- shortness of breath;
- wet cough;
- pain and discomfort in the chest;
- nausea and vomiting;
- decreased appetite and weight loss.
Where parasites enter the lungs, adhesions form and the shape of the lungs changes over time. Parasites cause diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and pleurisy. In an advanced condition, a fatal outcome is possible.
The main symptoms of intestinal helminthiasis
In the human body, worms often live in the intestines. When helminths begin to multiply actively, the first symptoms appear:
- lack of strength and fatigue;
- itching in the anus;
- dermatitis and eczema on the skin.
Parasites poison the body with the products of its vital activity, and all this leads to a general state of weakness and apathy.
Symptoms of worms in the stomach
This place is also a favorite place of worms, the symptoms are as follows:
- often indigestion, constipation can turn into sudden diarrhea;
- pain in the stomach and navel;
- decreased appetite;
- constant hunger;
- tooth gnashing;
Symptoms of Dirofilaria infection
This type of parasite is caused by insect bites in humans. There are two forms of dirofilariasis - eye and skin:
- The skin form is the most common and can be caused by a mosquito bite, where a small seal forms and gradually migrates under the skin, causing discomfort. If you do not seek professional help in time, severe redness and pain will appear at the site of the lesion.
- In the ocular form, the parasite lives under the skin of the eyelids and is likely to penetrate the eyeball. Symptoms include redness and swelling, conjunctivitis, and itching in the affected area, in addition to which the person constantly feels a foreign body in the eye. All this is accompanied by insomnia, increased nervousness and general weakness.
Symptoms of helminths in the throat
The throat is one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. When it is inflamed, we immediately feel pain and discomfort, but sometimes you can feel a strong tickle and spark in the throat, which is often caused by helminths. It should be noted that parasites can not live in the throat, because it is not a suitable habitat for them. It turns out that parasites that develop in the digestive system reach such a size that they enter the throat through the esophagus, which is usually accompanied by suffocation and a severe cough.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion of the brain
Brain damage usually occurs through the nasal passages. When they enter the brain, helminths infect the cortical center, destroying brain cells and actively multiplying. Dead cells are replaced by dead tissue that causes inflammatory processes in the brain. If the patient does not receive emergency medical care, he may die within two weeks.
- severe pain in the head;
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in human blood
Blood is home to several types of helminths that are very harmful to the body. Symptoms include:
- fever attacks;
- pain in the joints;
- limb alignment;
- enlargement of lymph nodes.
How to recognize helminthic infestation with skin rashes
One of the main manifestations of the presence of helminths is a strong deterioration in the condition of the skin and the appearance of various rashes on it. This is due to the toxins released by parasites. The most characteristic features are:
- severe itching;
- allergic rhinitis;
- appearance of papillomas;
- fragility of nails;
- increased hair loss;
- acne and furunculosis.
However, you should not associate all skin manifestations with the presence of worms in the body, the causes may be different and can only be identified by a dermatologist after research.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in the form of metabolic disorders
Failures in metabolic processes in the body should also be alerted. If there is a sharp decrease or increase in weight with a normal diet, if anemia or hypovitaminosis is detected, it is necessary to think about infection with parasites. Rapid weight loss may be due to worms swallowing all the food a person consumes. Weight gain can be triggered by toxins secreted by helminths, in response to which the body needs more food to remove toxins.
Symptoms from the immune system
Because parasites eat all the nutrients and vitamins that enter the body, the immune system is strongly suppressed, and the person becomes susceptible to all infectious diseases and inflammatory processes in various organs. Chronic diseases are also on the rise.
Helminthic invasion of the nervous system is characterized by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment;
- decreased activity and performance.
Signs of infection in children
Note! The presence of pinworms and ascaris in children is most often diagnosed.
In children, worm infection manifests itself with the following symptoms:
- poor appetite;
- pale skin of the face;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- bad sleep, grinding teeth in sleep;
- headache, dizziness;
- general lethargy and weakness;
- the presence of worms in the feces of the child;
- itching in the anus;
- large amount of saliva in the mouth;
- lethargy and fatigue;
- increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- allergic reactions, dermatitis, urticaria;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals;
- bad breath;
- nervous cough;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent colds.
Tip! If your baby has three or more symptoms, you should see a doctor right away. Often, even the examination of feces does not give accurate results, so a thorough examination will be most effective.
It is important to understand that a small number of adult helminths in the body almost do not show signs of helminthic invasion in adults and children. Infection can only be confirmed or denied by laboratory tests and examinations prescribed individually by a parasitologist.
Diagnosis of helminthiasis
A competent diagnosis is important because the body can be treated for parasites only after they are detected, and the symptoms of the infection are similar to the symptoms of other diseases. Its methods include:
- Serological analysis - detection of helminth antibodies in the blood;
- Fecal analysis - helps to determine the presence of adult larvae and fragments;
- Coprological examination - the study of debris taken near the anus;
- Check for dysbacteriosis;
- CT scan;
Worms are easy to infect, but difficult to treat, especially chronic forms of helminthic infestation. The course of treatment includes antiparasitic drugs, immunomodulators and sorbents. The therapy regimen is prescribed only by a doctor, self-medication can be not only useless, but also dangerous.
Preventive measures against helminth infections
Prevention of helminthic infestations is extremely important for children and adults, you can significantly reduce the chances of infection with parasites by following certain rules. The presence of helminthic infestation in humans is usually due to non-compliance with basic hygiene rules:
- Always wash your hands before using any food, on the way home from the street, after contact with animals;
- well, preferably using special products, wash fruits and vegetables before eating or burn with boiling water;
- drink only purified or boiled water;
- try to avoid insect bites;
- fish, meat and other similar products are subjected to comprehensive heat treatment;
- make sure that the child's nails are shortened;
- wash children's toys regularly using special products;
- make sure you boil the patient's items for five minutes;
- twice a year to examine a child and adult for helminths;
- weaning the child, taking his hands and other objects, especially those in contact with the ground, into his mouth.
It is not very difficult to implement these measures. Adherence to them will be enough to protect yourself and your children from parasites as much as possible. If something is missed and symptoms of helminthic invasion begin to appear, treatment should be started immediately to prevent complications.